0410107 - Princípios de Sistemática e Biogeografia

Sobre a disciplina


Objetivos

O objetivo da disciplina é proporcionar aos alunos os fundamentos de sistemática e biogeografia, além de noções básicas de taxonomia, classificação e nomenclatura biológica. O curso é orientado através dos conceitos teóricos e práticos do método filogenético, com ênfase nas suas interações com o estudo da biodiversidade e evolução biológica. Métodos alternativos são também discutidos. O conteúdo é apresentado na forma de aulas expositivas e estudos práticos dirigidos. O objetivo é capacitar o aluno a entender e organizar informação biológica de uma forma comparativa e filogeneticamente coerente.

Equipe 2019

Docentes

Dr. Fernando Portella de Luna Marques [Depto. de Zoologia] CONTATO
Dr. Renato Mello Silva [Depto. de Botânica]

Estagiários & Monitores

Graduação

Aline Yumi Castro Shibata [GRAD - 018]
Henrique Rossetti Tognonato [GRAD - 018]
Vitor Gomes de Deus [GRAD - 016]

Cronograma

Locais e Horários

Aulas Teóricas: Auditório Geral da Zoologia (IB/USP)
Aulas Práticas: Sala de Anatomia do Bloco Didático (IB/USP)
Aulas às sextas-feiras, das 14:00 as 18:00 (Diurno) e das 19:00 as 23:00 (Noturno)
Atendimento ao aluno: Todas as quartas-feiras (exceto semanas de provas), sala 143, Zoologia das 17:00 as 19:00 hrs.

Materiais Didáticos


Exercícios práticos


Exercício 1 - 2a. Semana: 08 de março de 2019. PDF

Figura suplementar (será fornecida em sala de aula):PDF

Exercício 2 - 3a. Semana: 15 de março de 2019. PDF

Exercício 3 - 4a. Semana: 23 de março de 2019. PDF

Exercício 4 - 5a. Semana: 29 de março de 2019. PDF

Exercício 5 - 6a. Semana: 05 de abril de 2019. PDF

Exercício 6 - 7a. Semana: 12 de abril de 2019 (em aula) PDF

Exercício 7 - 8a. Semana: 26 de abril de 2019. PDF

Exercício 8 - 9a. Semana: 10 de maio de 2019. PDF

Exercício 9 - 10. Semana: 17 de maio de 2019. ZIP

Exercício 10 - 12. Semana: 27 de maio de 2019. PDF

Aulas teóricas


Aula 1: 01 de março de 2019 - Apresentação do curso e conceitos iniciais. PDF

Aula 2: 08 de março de 2019 - Essescialismo, origem das semelhanças, Nova Síntese e Sistemática Evolutiva.PDF

Aula 3: 15 de março de 2019 - Inferência filogenética, fenética e diagramas dicotômicos. PDF

Aula 4: 22 de março de 2019 - Introdução à cladística, topologia e otimização. PDF

Aula 5: 29 de março de 2019 - Enraizamento, terminologia cladística e otimização. PDF

Aula 6: 05 de abril de 2019 - Leitura de cladogramas, comprimento de ramos, suporte e consenso. PDF

Aula 7: 12 de abril de 2019 - Verossimilhança e o uso de probabilidades como critério de otimalidade.PDF

Aula 8: 03 de maio de 2019 - Classificações Biológicas.PDF

Aula 9: 10 de maio de 2019 - Nomenclatura Biológica. PDF

Aula 10: 17 de maio de 2019 - Espécies e Identificação. PDF

Aula 11: 24 de maio de 2019 - Introdução à Biogeografia. PDF

Estudo dirigido: 24 de maio de 2019 - Biogeografia. PDF

Aula 12: 27 de maio de 2019 - Biogeografia Histórica. PDF

Leitura recomendada nos guias de aula prática


Aula Prática 1

Artigos de interesse

Textos suplementares de aulas

Tópicos gerais

Conceito de espécies

Livros & Apostilas

Vídeos: Conceitos fundamentais


Introdução à Sistemática: Aristóteles a Sistemática Evolutiva



Linhagens e descendência com modificação



Anagênese, Cladogênese e Diversidade Biológica



Compartilhamento de similaridades, nível de generalidade, homologia e homoplasia



Lógica da inferência filogenética e a pertinência de diagramas dicotômicos



Fenética ou Taxonomia Numérica



Princípios da Cladística



Otimização



Enraizamento de diagramas dicotômicos



Enraizamento e definições de grupos



Enraizamento e termos associados à caracteres e estados de caráter



Suporte cladístico e árvores de consenso



Verossimilhanca (Likelihood) e estimativa de máxima verossimilhança



Verossimilhanca como critério de otimização em inferência filogenética




Notas e Frequência


Integral

Código Quiz 01 Quiz 02 Quiz 03 Quiz 04 Quiz 05 Quiz 06 Quiz 07 Quiz 08 Quiz 09 Quizz 10 Quizz 11 Média Média Final
4390765 6,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 5,0 7,0 5,0 NC 5,6 5,6
7161177 8,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 5,0 6,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 10,0 6,0 7,8 7,9
8020139 5,0 8,0 6,0 7,0 5,0 5,0 0,0 3,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 5,0 5,4
8574367 6,0 6,0 8,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 2,0 8,0 9,0 4,0 6,4 6,6
8607011 5,0 6,0 8,0 9,0 9,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 0,0 0,0 NC 5,6 5,6
8799117 9,0 7,0 0,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 7,0 0,0 6,0 4,0 4,8 5,2
10320570 9,0 5,0 8,0 4,0 7,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 7,0 6,0 NC 5,9 5,9
10328769 8,0 6,0 6,0 4,0 7,0 4,0 5,0 2,0 9,0 7,0 5,0 5,8 6,1
10353754 7,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 8,0 8,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 10,0 NC 8,0 8,0
10369661 7,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 4,0 6,0 8,0 7,0 4,0 NC 6,2 6,2
10369696 7,0 6,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 3,0 5,0 5,0 8,0 7,0 NC 6,1 6,1
10392571 8,0 9,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 NC 6,9 6,9
10408712 9,0 6,0 9,0 6,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 8,0 0,0 9,0 NC 6,2 6,2
10408726 5,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 5,0 3,0 4,0 1,0 4,0 4,0 NC 3,8 3,8
10438192 7,0 8,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 7,0 7,0
10694567 8,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 5,0 0,0 4,0 4,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 5,4 5,4
10721991 10,0 10,0 9,0 8,0 10,0 9,0 7,0 9,0 9,0 8,0 4,0 8,9 8,6
10740593 5,0 4,0 6,0 8,0 8,0 8,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 3,0 NC 6,0 6,0
10746202 9,0 8,0 8,0 8,0 8,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 7,5 7,8
10819926 5,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 6,0 7,0 5,0 4,0 9,0 4,0 NC 6,3 6,3
10830530 0,0 6,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 3,0 2,0 4,0 2,0 3,7 3,9
10851972 8,0 6,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 7,0 7,0 5,0 5,0 6,7 6,7
11091222 6,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 2,0 5,0 2,0 0,0 5,0 8,0 5,0 4,3 4,8
11094890 3,0 6,0 3,0 6,0 6,0 NC NC NC NC NC NC NA NA
11225443 6,0 7,0 7,0 5,0 9,0 6,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 9,0 3,0 6,7 6,5
11225471 7,0 7,0 7,0 2,0 7,0 0,0 0,0 5,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 4,9 5,5
11225485 8,0 6,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 8,0 7,0 6,8 7,0
11225512 7,0 6,0 7,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 6,0 3,0 6,0 5,0 3,0 5,7 5,7
11225530 10,0 10,0 10,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 8,0 7,0 8,0 10,0 7,0 8,8 8,8
11225547 10,0 9,0 5,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 1,0 6,6 6,3
11225551 6,0 9,0 7,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 NC 6,9 6,9
11225589 4,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 5,0 6,4 6,4
11225613 7,0 10,0 9,0 9,0 8,0 8,0 4,0 8,0 9,0 10,0 NC 8,2 8,2
11225634 6,0 9,0 8,0 5,0 7,0 8,0 4,0 3,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 6,1 6,4
11225655 9,0 8,0 7,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 6,8 7,0
11225662 6,0 8,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 10,0 9,0 8,0 7,3 7,3
11225676 8,0 6,0 9,0 6,0 8,0 7,0 5,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 10,0 6,9 7,4
11225697 8,0 8,0 7,0 5,0 8,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 7,3 7,6
11225717 7,0 9,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 7,0 5,0 4,0 9,0 7,0 7,2 7,5
11225721 5,0 9,0 10,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 8,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 7,5 7,6
11225738 8,0 8,0 9,0 7,0 10,0 7,0 8,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 8,1 8,1
11225742 8,0 8,0 10,0 8,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 10,0 9,0 9,0 NC 8,7 8,7
11225770 8,0 7,0 9,0 5,0 7,0 5,0 6,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 NC 6,7 6,7
11225804 8,0 8,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 7,0 7,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 7,9 7,9
11225811 9,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 7,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 8,0
11225832 5,0 9,0 9,0 10,0 9,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 7,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 8,4
11225846 6,0 6,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 6,0 3,0 5,6 5,6
11225850 7,0 7,0 8,0 4,0 3,0 3,0 2,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 5,2 5,4
11225867 0,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 6,1 6,6
11225892 8,0 8,0 10,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 8,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 NC 8,0 8,0
11225933 7,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 6,4 6,3
11225975 8,0 8,0 10,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 8,0 6,0 10,0 5,0 7,7 7,6
11226002 6,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 6,0
11226037 2,0 8,0 8,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 NC 5,7 5,7
11226041 4,0 6,0 8,0 7,0 3,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 6,0 3,0 6,1 6,1
11226058 8,0 8,0 9,0 8,0 6,0 5,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 3,0 7,2 7,0
11226079 8,0 8,0 10,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 10,0 4,0 8,0 7,8
11226090 9,0 7,0 10,0 7,0 10,0 8,0 7,0 10,0 9,0 10,0 8,0 8,7 8,8
11226103 8,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 2,0 6,0 6,0 5,9 6,3
11277299 5,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 4,0 5,0 5,0 2,0 5,0 4,8 5,1
11277319 4,0 4,0 6,0 4,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 2,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 5,1 5,4
11277330 9,0 6,0 NC 5,0 7,0 4,0 5,0 5,0 8,0 3,0 NC 5,8 5,8
11277351 9,0 9,0 9,0 7,0 6,0 7,0 5,0 4,0 7,0 7,0 NC 7,0 7,0
11277372 6,0 7,0 9,0 6,0 8,0 2,0 5,0 2,0 4,0 5,0 5,0 5,4 5,7
11277386 4,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 5,0 4,0 2,0 4,0 4,6 4,8
11277406 9,0 10,0 10,0 7,0 10,0 10,0 6,0 8,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 8,6 8,6
11277448 4,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 4,0 5,0 9,0 7,0 2,0 6,3 6,1
11277469 8,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 0,0 2,0 6,0 4,8 5,4
11277480 5,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 6,0 4,0 3,0 3,0 9,0 4,0 4,0 5,3 5,4
11277494 6,0 9,0 5,0 2,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 2,0 6,0 4,0 3,0 4,8 4,9
11277514 7,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 5,7 5,7
11277521 9,0 6,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 7,0 9,0 9,0 8,0 8,0 7,8 8,0
11321534 6,0 9,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 8,0 4,0 6,0 7,0 4,0 5,0 6,3 6,4
11321541 7,0 8,0 8,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 2,0 6,6 6,3
11335453 6,0 0,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 0,0 1,0 4,0 5,0 NC 3,8 3,8
11367063 5,0 5,0 8,0 3,0 7,0 4,0 5,0 3,0 4,0 8,0 4,0 5,2 5,3
11372010 3,0 3,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 3,0 0,0 5,0 3,0 4,4 4,7

Notuno

Código Quiz 01 Quiz 02 Quiz 03 Quiz 04 Quiz 05 Quiz 06 Quiz 07 Quiz 08 Quiz 09 Quizz 10 Quizz 11 Média Média Final
4265581 6,0 5,0 7,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 3,0 5,0 7,0 5,0 NC 5,6 5,6
4744571 6,0 7,0 7,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 7,0 3,0 6,1 6,0
7036931 8,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 0,0 7,0 9,0 6,4 7,3
7156042 5,0 8,0 0,0 5,0 8,0 6,0 5,0 5,0 6,0 9,0 NC 5,7 5,7
7582340 6,0 7,0 9,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 6,0 5,0 NC 5,9 5,9
8799802 7,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 7,0 2,0 NC 5,4 5,4
8940208 4,0 5,0 6,0 0,0 4,0 4,0 3,0 7,0 0,0 6,0 3,0 3,9 4,2
9300748 7,0 8,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 7,0 4,0 7,0 9,0 0,0 NC 6,0 6,0
9302351 8,0 7,0 9,0 10,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 9,0 6,0 9,0 6,0 7,5 7,7
9364354 7,0 7,0 0,0 7,0 0,0 5,0 3,0 0,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 4,1 4,6
9442987 6,0 4,0 6,0 6,0 3,0 6,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 NC 5,3 5,3
9797851 5,0 6,0 9,0 7,0 5,0 6,0 7,0 6,0 0,0 7,0 7,0 5,8 6,5
9811922 5,0 9,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 5,0 7,0 8,0 4,0 6,8 6,7
10286457 7,0 5,0 10,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 3,0 7,0 4,0 5,0 5,5 5,7
10296542 7,0 5,0 7,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 9,0 8,0 NC 5,6 5,6
10438376 5,0 4,0 4,0 2,0 3,0 3,0 4,0 3,0 6,0 2,0 NC 3,6 3,6
10686752 7,0 9,0 7,0 4,0 5,0 4,0 6,0 2,0 2,0 5,0 NC 5,1 5,1
10694608 0,0 6,0 8,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 0,0 6,0 6,0 4,3 4,9
10720746 8,0 9,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 8,0 8,0 8,0 NC 6,9 6,9
10740248 8,0 9,0 9,0 3,0 8,0 6,0 0,0 4,0 3,0 6,0 NC 5,6 5,6
10803449 7,0 7,0 9,0 6,0 7,0 5,0 5,0 4,0 5,0 8,0 7,0 6,3 6,6
10913164 6,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 4,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 6,0 3,0 NC 5,2 5,2
11225450 6,0 7,0 10,0 7,0 5,0 3,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 5,6 5,7
11225464 8,0 6,0 7,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 5,0 1,0 2,0 6,0 6,0 5,1 5,6
11225492 5,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 3,0 5,0 4,0 6,0 7,0 NC 5,7 5,7
11225526 8,0 4,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 4,0 6,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 6,2
11225568 6,0 4,0 7,0 4,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 4,0 5,0 5,0 5,3 5,4
11225609 5,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 7,0 7,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 4,0 6,4 6,4
11225784 5,0 6,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 5,8 5,9
11225791 5,0 5,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 7,0 4,0 6,0 6,0 4,0 NC 5,1 5,1
11225871 3,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 6,0
11225888 7,0 8,0 8,0 8,0 7,0 4,0 8,0 3,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 6,8 7,1
11225954 0,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 4,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 4,0 5,0 4,9 5,0
11225961 4,0 6,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 2,0 3,0 2,0 5,0 7,0 6,0 4,7 5,1
11225982 9,0 9,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 4,0 4,0 5,0 3,0 8,0 6,0 6,4 6,7
11225996 7,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 8,0 5,0 3,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 6,3
11226016 9,0 6,0 7,0 3,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 6,0 4,0 10,0 8,0 6,2 6,7
11226020 8,0 8,0 8,0 8,0 6,0 5,0 5,0 8,0 5,0 9,0 7,0 7,0 7,2
11226062 5,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 6,0 3,0 7,0 6,0 8,0 6,4 6,9
11226083 7,0 4,0 9,0 5,0 8,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 8,0 NC 6,1 6,1
11226110 8,0 4,0 8,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 0,0 1,0 2,0 4,0 7,0 4,4 5,1
11247163 8,0 10,0 9,0 6,0 8,0 7,0 8,0 7,0 8,0 10,0 4,0 8,1 7,9
11251828 8,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 6,0 3,0 4,0 4,0 7,0 4,0 6,0 5,4 5,7
11277302 5,0 3,0 8,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 2,0 5,0 4,0 NC 4,5 4,5
11277323 0,0 5,0 6,0 10,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 7,0 2,0 5,0 4,0 4,8 5,2
11277365 4,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 5,0 2,0 4,0 4,0 6,0 4,0 NC 4,3 4,3
11277390 4,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 5,0 6,0 4,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 5,0 4,9 5,0
11277473 0,0 8,0 6,0 7,0 9,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 8,0 5,0 6,0 6,5
11277500 9,0 8,0 6,0 6,0 7,0 6,0 7,0 3,0 6,0 8,0 2,0 6,6 6,5
11277535 8,0 9,0 6,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 3,0 6,0 6,0 4,0 NC 5,8 5,8
11277542 5,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 8,0 5,0 3,0 4,0 3,0 6,0 3,0 5,3 5,3
11298661 8,0 7,0 9,0 6,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 3,0 7,0 9,0 5,0 6,8 7,0
11298678 6,0 10,0 8,0 10,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 8,0 7,0 4,0 7,3 7,3
11298682 6,0 2,0 8,0 5,0 8,0 5,0 4,0 6,0 2,0 5,0 NC 5,1 5,1
11321513 7,0 5,0 7,0 8,0 6,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 8,0 4,0 6,7 6,6
11321520 6,0 6,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 3,0 3,0 5,0 6,0 3,0 5,3 5,3
11340696 9,0 3,0 9,0 6,0 9,0 2,0 5,0 5,0 6,0 9,0 7,0 6,3 6,8
11340702 6,0 8,0 7,0 5,0 9,0 7,0 6,0 4,0 8,0 7,0 8,0 6,7 7,1
11345746 7,0 8,0 8,0 6,0 7,0 4,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 7,0 6,0 6,2 6,4
11367070 6,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 5,0 4,0 7,0 0,0 6,0 4,7 5,3
11371990 5,0 5,0 7,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 4,0 4,0 5,0 7,0 3,0 5,7 5,6
11372027 6,0 7,0 8,0 5,0 7,0 5,0 6,0 5,0 5,0 7,0 3,0 6,1 5,9
11372031 5,0 5,0 5,0 4,0 7,0 5,0 3,0 7,0 9,0 5,0 7,0 5,5 5,9
11372048 7,0 7,0 7,0 6,0 6,0 4,0 7,0 3,0 3,0 7,0 4,0 5,7 5,8
11381938 7,0 5,0 9,0 4,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 7,0 7,0 5,0 8,0 5,9 5,9
113991147 6,0 6,0 5,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 3,0 7,0 7,0 NC 6,0 6,0